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Soap Making Process

Soap Making Process

Soap is a mixture of caustic soda and plant or animal oil and when dissolved in water, it helps in breaking away dirt from clothes and other surfaces. The origin of soap is not yet known, though Romans claim it dates back to 600BC when the Phoenicians used goat mallow and wood ash to make soap (Onyegbado, Iyagba &Offor 73). Soap is manufactured using two primary methods; kettle and continuous method. The kettle method is applied by small manufacturers and the process may last from 4 to eleven days to be complete. The quality of each batch is also considered inconsistent due to the different oils used. The continuous process is however used by large manufacturing companies and rather than production of one batch, the process is continuous. Producers have more control over the process and it is much quicker as it only lasts for 6 hours to complete one batch. This paper will focus on the kettle process of soap manufacturer that can be conducted even at home.

Ingredients

The primary raw materials required are alkali and fat. The most common type of alkali used is sodium hydroxide and sometimes potassium hydroxide (Onyegbado, Iyagba &Offor 73). Potassium based soaps are preferred since they are water soluble as compared to sodium based ones. In the past, animal fat was applied directly to the process but today manufacturers use processed fatty acids that are known to eliminate impurities and also produce glycerin as a final by-product (Onyegbado, Iyagba &Offor 73). One can also use olive oil, vegetable fat coconut oil, or palm kernel oil for the process. Additives such as perfumes, fragrances are also added to enhance the color and smell of soap. Abrasives use to enhance the texture of the product include silica, talc, and volcanic ash. Soap that is manufactured without dye is often brown or dull grey in color but the color can be improved through use of different dye color.

The Kettle Process

The Boiling– The process starts with melting of alkali and fats in a kettle, a steel tank that is partitioned three times and can hold a thousand pound of raw materials and products (Onyegbado, Iyagba &Offor 73). There are steam coils placed inside the kettle to enhance the boiling. After reaching boiling point, the fat and alkali react producing glycerin and soap.

Salting– The raw materials that are placed into the kettle contain parts of lye’s that assist in initializing the saponification process and reaction. Once saponification is complete, the glycerin and soap are separated through mixing with salt, a process known as soap graining. The soap rises to the top and the glycerin, water, and NaOH that are inexcess settle at the bottom where it is extracted through taps (Onyegbado, Iyagba &Offor 73).

Strong change– To eradicate the small fat amounts that are not yet saponified, a strong caustic solution is mixed into the kettle in a process known as strong change. The mixture or mass is then boiled again to ensure the last bits of fats turn to soap. At this point, the manufacturer may decide to repeat the soap treatment or proceed with the steps if satisfied.

Pitching– The final step is known as pitching and the soap is boiled again with water being added to separate the mixture into two layers. The top layer is known as neat soap and contains 30 percent water and 70 percent soap. The bottom layer is known as the nigre and contains impurities removed from the soap such as salt, water, and dirt. The neat soap is removed and put into molds for cooling and hardening into slabs. The cooling process can also take place in special freezers. The big slabs can then be cut into smaller sizeable pieces or bars that are then wrapped and stamped. This process takes several days unlike in the continuous that only takes few hours.

In the last pitching process, after the soap is boiled again with water, the mass separates inside the partitioned kettle into the various components of neat soap, nigre, water, and salt. All the products are placed at different levels in the partitioned machine and therefore do not mix and are easily extracted. The primary by-products of the process are glycerin which is used in making hand and body lotions and nitroglycerin that is adopted as an explosive component, for example, dynamite.

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Jessica Wang

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Air Control System

The Control systems

Air Control System

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The Elements of ATC

Air Traffic Control Tower

Terminal Radar Control Station

Air Route Traffic Control Center

Operation of an Air Traffic Control System

The air control system is a system design to control the airport’s traffic since airports have become busy with planes landing every minute in the world’s busiest airports. The need to control the traffic to avoid delays and accidents becomes crucial. During pre-flight, weather information is retrieved and immediately, the crew designs the flight plan. The air traffic control at the air traffic tower provides the planes with a route after ensuring that the route is safe and free from other traffic. The tower controller informs the pilot about the taxiways that he or she will use for takeoff preparation (William). During takeoff, the local tower controller at the airport of departure gives the pilot clearance allowing him or her to take off.

During the departure, when the plane is about five miles away from the control tower, it is transferred to a TRACON. William says that the TRACON is the Terminal Radar Approach Station located in different parts of the world that aid air traffic. In the United States, there are over 185 such stations that control air traffic in the busy skies of the US. During this stage, the plane is routed off the airport through an assigned altitude and route.

While in the air, the plan’s oversight is handed over to another center, the Air Route Traffic Control Center. It is a radar that oversees flights passing over its zone. For instance, the ARTC Center in Chicago oversees air traffic in seven states in the US. The controllers at the centers monitor the flights and provide instructions to the pilots when the aircraft pass over the station’s airspace from one point to the other (William). When the plan reaches the decent stage, normally approximately 50 miles from the airport of destination, the plane is handed over to the TRACON at the airport of destination. When the plane approaches the station, the TRACON control personnel applies various streams in descending the plane into a single evenly spaced, smooth-flowing way, free from use by other planes.  During landing, the flight is again handed over to the local control tower of the destination airport. The tower controller provides clearance for landing. After landing, the plane is handed over to the controller on the ground who, in turn, provides directions to the pilot on the taxiways until it reaches the destination gate.

All these components of the Air Traffic Control system should coordinate to allow smooth takeoff, overseeing the entire flight in the air and offer safe landing. Computer data links interconnect the stations. The data links allow the controllers at the local control towers in the airport of departure and the airport of destination, and the TRACON stations to communicate issues concerning the aircraft. If any of these components fail, the plane traffic and control is lost, and disaster might strike.

https://youtu.be/m5KOgETF78o

 

Jessica Wang

Milgram’s Experiment

The elements of Milgram’s Experiment

Authority

Orders

Obedience

Behavior

The Milgram’s experiment is one of the examples illustrating how the social system works. After publishing a newspaper advert about his study, Milgram intended to get volunteers for his study to determine how punishment can yield good results in the learning process. The subjects, one acting as the teacher and the other as the learner, were taken into separate rooms. The learner was strapped in a chair connected to electric power. The power used was not more than 450 volts to avoid damaging body tissues (Chalenor). The teacher read a list of questions and each time the learner failed, he would receive a shock, but if he were right, the teacher would pass to the next question. The shock began from 15 volts and was increased slowly to 450 volts. Chalenor adds that the twist in the experiment is that Milgram hired the learner and the teacher was the volunteer for the experiment. Milgram wanted to discover if people could administer severe punishments on other people if they were ordered by an authority. In the experiment, most of the teachers complained, but the authority ordered them to continue administering the shock while others did not protest at all.

The purpose of this study was to show how an authority can make people harm their friends and colleagues. It finally found that 65 percent of the people could have administered the shock till the end of the experiment because of the obedience to the authority. The interconnection created in the experiment is that authorities play a major role in impacting on the actions of their subjects. The subjects obey the authorities because they believe that the directives given come from a legitimate source (Chalenor). When the learner asked the teacher to continue, the teacher hesitated but when Milgram ordered the teacher to continue the teacher obeyed.

The study is relevant to the society at large. It is a representation of the society’s structure through a shift from an individual level to the collective nature of the society under an authoritative figure. The study shows that authorities are part of the society’s social order. According to Chalenor, it explains the reason people are willing to remain submissive to the authorities. In short, the experiment focused on the force brought by an authority that makes people obedient, hence influencing their behavior. It suggests that people always want to be obedient and remain subservient. It is evident from this study that a free society does not exist as long people follow orders instead of resisting. Below is the Top down obedience chart.

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https://youtu.be/iU1JYZShCAE

 

Jessica Wang

Blood Circulation

Biological system

Blood circulation system

Elements:

Capillaries in the Lung

Pulmonary vein

Pulmonary artery

Left (right) atrium

Left (right) ventricle

Vena Cava

Aorta

Capillaries in the body

Blood circulation system is a two-part system which includes pulmonary loop and systemic loop. Purpose of these two system is delivering nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. The blood circulation starts when the heart relax between two heartbeats. Blood flows from both two atria into ventricle and then expand. In the systemic circulation, the left ventricles pumps the oxygen-rich blood into the aorta. The blood flows from the aorta to the larger and smaller arteries into the capillaries network. Then the blood releases the oxygen and other nutrients, at the same time, it will absorb the carbon dioxide and waste substances. After this, the blood in the veins flows into the right atrium and right ventricle.

Now, the pulmonary circulation starts. The right ventricle pump the blood which carries little oxygen into the pulmonary artery which branched into two main parts: one going to the left lung, one to the right lung. When we breathe out, the carbon dioxide leaves our body. The fresh blood returns to the left ventricle of the heart through the pulmonary veins and left atrium.

Although the circulation system is made up of two cycles, they happen at the same time. The circulation system is step by step cycle. The elements control each other. They work together to help people to breathe in the oxygen and deliver the oxygen-rich blood into all cells of the body and breathe out the carbon dioxide to sustain people’s live. The volume of blood of an adult is about 8 percentage of his total weight. If the circulation system can not work normally, all the tissues will lose the ability of metabolism. At the same time, some important function of organ in the body will get damaged, especially to cerebral cortex.

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Jessica Wang

Dung Beetles

How dung beetles work for ecology

Elements:

Herbivore

Omnivore

Dung

Dung beetle

Dung ball

Eggs

Soil

There are many beneficial inserts in the environment which can help the development of the ecology. Dung beetles are reply on the dung of organisms: herbivore and omnivore. There are three different groups of dung beetles: rollers, tunnelers, dwellers. Rollers always roll the dung into ball for food and storage of eggs. Tunnelers usually bury the bung under the soil. And, the dwellers only live in the dung. Dung beetles always live in the environment like dessert, farmland, forest, grassland because they don’t like cold or dry weather. This kind of inserts like the dung of omnivore more than that of herbivore. After the organism finish the excretion, the dung beetles will roll the dung to a big ball and then bury the ball under the soil. After they mate underground, dung beetles will put their eggs into dung ball. The dung ball under the soil also become the nutrient for the ground and they can improve the nutrient recycling ad soil structure for the environment. Afterwords, the environment will become better for the organism to live in the world. That makes a circles for the ecology to sustain the system.

In this system, every part subject by others and control others at the same time. The herbivore and omnivore control the number of the dung beetles because their dungs are very important for dung beetles to survive. They are food and residence for dung beetles. Meanwhile, dung beetles make the big contribution to the environment because they help to clean the dungs on the soil and bury the dungs under the ground to convert the dung to the nutrient for the soil. Also, some kinds of dung beetles live under the ground, when they move or act, they can help to loosen the soil. While the quality of the soil become better, the high quality of environment will be better for trees to grow up and other organism to live. That circulation repeat constantly and make the strong relationship among each other.

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Digestive System

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Digestive system is very important for people because this process can decompose the food into the energy that sustain people’s activity. Digestive system consists with digestive tract, liver, pancreas and gallbladder. Only all of these part cooperate together, the food can be decomposed better. Digestive process begins from the mouth. The saliva in the mouth will help people to break the down and then the small piece of food will through the throat and the esophagus to the stomach. The acid and enzymes in the stomach will kill the bacteria and break down the small piece of the food into liquid or paste. And then, food will reach the small intestine for absorbing the water and nutrients into the bloodstream. After this, the food waste will be transport to the large intestine to form the stool. the rectum is between the large intestine and the anus and it is like the transmission band. When the brain gets the signal that there are some stuff in the rectum, the muscles will relax and release the stuff to the anus which is the last step of the digestive system.

Each part of the organ works together and separates the work into different step for ensure the quality work of the digestive system.  Digestive system is very important for human body because it will help people to eject the waste from the body and absorb the energy which sustain human activities.  Without this system, people can not live and work normally.

Jessica Wang